# Data Analysis and Probability

**Data Analysis **is defined as describing data using different types of statistics. Two traditional ways to describe data are using the **measures of central tendency ** (mean, median, and mode), and **measures of variability** (range). For example, once you have a set of data, you can analyze the data using the following definitions. If your data consisted of a set of test scores, you would be able to determine the mean (average) of the test scores, the median (the middle number in the set of test scores), the mode (the most frequently occuring test score), and the range of the data (high test score minus low test score).

• *Mean *– the average of the set of data

• *Median* – the middle number in the set of data once the data is in order from least to greatest

• *Mode* – the most frequently occurring number in the set of data

• *Range* – once the data is in order from least to greatest, it is the range of the data. Simply put, it is the highest number subtracted by the lowest number

**Probability**

• *Probability of a simple event is the likelihood that an event will occur.* The probability is expressed as the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes in a set divided by the total number of possible outcomes in the set. For example, if you were to randomly choose one Skittle from a bag of Skittles that had 8 red, 10 blue, 7 yellow, and 6 green, the probability of choosing one red Skittle would be 8/31.

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